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The Popol Wuj and the Mayan Cultures Archives / Archivos del Popol Wuj y las culturas mayas

Style Guidelines

The following specifications codify current style guidelines and basically follow the MLA Style, though some slight changes have been made because of the fact that this is an online publication. The purpose of this compendium is to standardize and facilitate the work of authors from very different places, some of them not necessarily familiar with the MLA style.

1. The manuscript

All articles must be submitted in an electronic file using Microsoft Word supported by the Windows platform.
  • 1.1. Format of the document:
    • a. Page size: letter (8.5-x-11-inch).
    • b. All margins should be about 1 (one) inch.
    • c. Font: preferably Times New Roman, size 10 - 12. Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Bookman Old Style, Cambria, Souvenir, or Constantia are also acceptable.
    • d. Figure or table captions fonts: 10 - 8.
    • e. Double space all sections of the manuscript, including abstracts.
    • f. Single space for: References Cited (or Bibliography), Notes (footnotes), figures and charts captions, and Acknowledgments.
    • g. Do not hyphenate words at the ends of lines.
    • h. Align the text to the left margin.
    • i. All notes must be footnotes (at the bottom of each page).
    • j. When submitting CDs, use a format readable on PC platforms.
  • 1.2. Sections of the Manuscript
    • a. Title page: separate and not numbered. It must include the title of the article and date. Do not include the name and affiliation of the author (it will be added by the editor after acceptance of the article).
    • b. Abstracts: one in the language of the article and the second in another language than the original of the article (so far, the languages accepted are Spanish, Portuguese and English - French requires previous consultation).
    • c. Text: start in a new page.
    • d. Acknowledgments - immediately after the end of the text.
    • e. Bibliography, or References Cited (new page)
    • f. Appendix (or Appendixes) in a new page.
NOTE: All pictures or tables must be intercalated in the place chosen by the author (including the captions).

2. Bibliography

All articles must include a bibliography comprising all works quoted or used by the author. The bibliography must be alphabetically organized according to the author's last name. When the author's last name includes an article or a preposition (e.g., Bartolomé de las Casas), the name must be placed in the bibliography according to the last name (e.g., Casas, Bartolomé de las).

  • 2.1. Books: author's last name, first name. Title of the book (italics). Place of publication; publisher, year. If more than one line is necessary, use hanging indentation. Example:
    • Carmack, Robert. The Quiché Mayas of Utatlán. The Evolution of a Highland Guatemala Kingdom. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 1981.
    • Garza, Mercedes de la. Los Mayas: 3000 años de civilización. México, D.F.: Monclem Ediciones ; Florencia, Italia : Bonechi, 1998.

  • If the book is published by an editor or coordinator, his/her/their names must follow the title of the book; and if the year of the first edition is relevant it must be placed after the title. Example:
    • The Codex Nuttall. 1902. Zelia Nuttall, Editor. With New Introductory Text by Arthur G. Miller. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.. 1975.

  • If the book has two authors:
    • Miller, Mary and Karl Taube. An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. 1993.

  • If there are three:
    • Freidel, David, Linda Schele and Joy Parker. Maya Cosmos. Three Thousand Years on the Shaman's Path. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. 1993.

  • More than three authors mention only the first name and substitute the others names with 'et al.' (e.g., in the following publication participated Ferdinand Anders, Marteen Jansen (Leiden), Luis Reyes García, and Gabina Aurora Pérez Jiménez):
    • Anders, Ferdinand et al. Origen e historia de los Reyes mixtecos: libro explicativo del llamado Códice Vindobonensis: Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus 1. Madrid: Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario; Graz : Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt; México, D.F. : Fondo de Cultura Económica. 1992.

  • No author specified:
    • Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico (CEH). Guatemala - Memoria del Silencio.TZ' INIL NA'TAB'AL. 1999. CD-ROM diseñado por la Asociación Americana para el Avance de las Ciencias (AAAS). Guatemala: F&G Editores. N/d.

  • Personal communication:
    • Wolff, Gregor (personal communication, 2004).
    • or:
    • Wolff, Gregor (personal communication by e-mail dated on 03/13/2004).

  • 2.2. Book Articles: Author's last name, first name. Title of the article (with quotation marks). Name of the Journal (italic). Editor's name. Place of publication: publisher, year of publication. Pages of the article.

    • Barthel, Thomas. "Tohil, el dador del fuego". Nuevas Perspectivas sobre el Popol Vuh. Robert M. Carmack, Francisco Morales Santos, Eds. Guatemala: Editorial Piedra Santa, 1983. 17-26.
    • Montejo, Víctor. "Popol Wuj y la cosmovisión maya - Introduction". Memorias del Congreso. Juan Everardo Chuc, Robert Carmack, Víctor Montejo, Equipo Ejecutivo. Guatemala: Centro de Estudios Mayas-Timach-, 1999. 9-14.

  • If there is more than one article from the same book, there must be an entry including all pertinent information for the book. In article entries, the book must be referred to by the title, followed by the pages. Example:
    • Cabezas, Horacio. "Los Señoríos quichés: un intento de interpretación". Nuevas Perspectivas sobre el Popol Vuh. 27-42.
    • Carmack, Robert M. and Francisco Morales Santos, Eds. Nuevas Perspectivas sobre el Popol Vuh. Guatemala: Editorial Piedra Santa, 1983
    • Cook, Garret. "Mitos de Momostenango comparados con el Popol Vuh". Nuevas Perspectivas sobre el Popol Vuh. 135-153.

  • 2.3. Primary source materials (for example, unpublished archival materials): Name of the archive, title of the work (if named), nature of the material (e.g., chronicle, correspondence, parochial record, etc.), collection name, identification number (folio, box, folder or carpeta, legajo, fascicle, etc.), date (if known), and geographic location of the material. Example:
    • Parochial archive, Parroquia Santo Tomás Chichicastenango - Chuwila. Chichicastenango city, Guatemala. "Libro de casamientos de éste Pueblo de Santo Tomás Chichicastenango, el 6 de Febrero de 1684". Picture of the folio 56 recto [1701], with the signature of Father Francisco Ximénez.

  • 2.4. Dictionaries:
    • Calepino de Motul: Diccionario Maya-Español. Ramón Arzápalo Marín, Ed.. Volúmenes I, II y III. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1995.
    • Diccionario K'iche'. Proyecto Lingüístico Francisco Marroquín (PLFM) - FODIGUA. Guatemala, 1996.

  • 2.5. Journal Articles: Author's last name, first name. Title of the article (with quotation marks). Name of the Journal (italics) volume/number (year of publication): pages. Example:
    • López, Carlos M. "The Popol Wuj in Ayer MS 1515 Is a Holograph by Father Ximénez". Latin American Indian Literatures Journal, V. 32, No. 2, Fall 2007: 112-141.
    • Nájera Coronado, Martha I.. "Sobre el carácter naturalista de los seres divinos de la creación quiché en el Popol Vuh". Memorias II - II Coloquio Internacional de Mayistas (17-21 de agosto de 1987). Vol. II. México, UNAM 1989: 1343-1359.

  • 2.6. Internet Articles: Author's last name, first name. Title of the article (with quotation marks). Name of the Webpage (italics), place, date; section name: complete URL, [when available, last date when the page was modified], (date of access - because sometimes websites are removed.) Examples:
    • Martínez, Francisco Mauricio. "¿Quién escribió el Popol Wuj?" Prensa Libre. Guatemala, 2 de junio de 2002; Revista "Domingo" No 1096, sección Historia: http://www.prensalibre.com/pl/domingo/archivo/domingo/pdfs/do020602.pdf (05/11/2008)
    • Sam Colop, Enrique. "UCHA'XIK. Utz peten la tat Evo". Prensa Libre. Guatemala, miércoles 13 de septiembre de 2006; Opinión: http://www.prensalibre.com/pl/2006/septiembre/13/151503.html (05/11/2008).
    • Wikipedia. "Mayan Languages." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_language [page modified on 2 May 2008, at 02:12.] (5/11/2008)

3. Citations

  • 3.1. In-text reference citations

  • In-text citations must use parentheses to specify the reference.

    • 3.1.1. If in the bibliography there is one book by the author only the last name of the author and the page must be in parentheses. Example: (Tedlock 15). If the number of the page is in Roman numbers a comma must be added before the number. Example: (Brasseur, XI).

    • 3.1.2. If in the bibliography there are two or more titles by the same author, after the last name include the first part of the title inserting a comma between them. Use italics for book titles and quotation marks for articles. Examples: (Garza, La conciencia histórica 15); and (Garza, "Alberto Ruz, una vocación rigurosa y apasionada" 31)

    • 3.1.3. If the name of the author and the work have been mentioned and the reference is obvious, only include the number of the page in parentheses: (34)

    • 3.1.4. When the article's author wants to emphasize part of the cited text, add after the page number: "emphasis added." Example: (Recinos 49, emphasis added).

    • 3.1.5. When authors have the same last name add an initial: (B. Tedlock, 185), (D. Tedlock, 61).
  • 3.2. Quotation of texts
    • 3.2.1. Quotations longer than four lines must be in a new paragraph, aligned 0.5 inches from the left margin, and using a slightly smaller font than the default font (e.g., 12:11, or 11:10). At the end of the quotation, the author's name, title, and page must be added in parentheses. If it is necessary add the translation. Example:

      At this point, the notion of "borrowing" can be elaborated to include not only borrowing the power of the particular day on which the divination is being done, but specifically borrowing the coyopa ("lightning") from the lakes of the four directions:
      Quinkajaxtaj ri k'ani coyopa saki coyopa, ri casilobic chuwi'ri nima cho ri ch'uti cho, chirelebal k'ij, chikajibal k'ij, cajxucut kaj, cajxucut ulew.

      I am now borrowing the yellow sheet-lightning white sheet-lightning, the movement over the large lake little lake, at the rising of the sun (east), at the setting of the sun (west), the four corners of sky (south), the four corners of earth (north). (B. Tedlock, 155)

      Tomados de "desespero e desejo" ao constatar o brilho dos Gêmeos, eles tambén querem participar e pedem para ser sacrificados:
      "Façam para nós!
      Sacrifiquem-nos!", eles disseram então.
      « Sacrifiqum-nos da mesma maneira »,
      Hun Kame
      E Vuqub Kame disseram. [versos 4.471-6]
      (Brotherston, "Popol Vuh: Contexto e Princípios de Leitura", 33)
    • 3.2.2. Quotations shorter than four lines could be included in the flow of the text using quotation marks. Example: Otra circunstancia que llama mucho la atención es que el pop Wuj relata que los antepasados de los Kí-chès "vinieron del otro lado del mar donde nace el Sol", (Chávez, "Explicación necesaria", XXV)

    • 3.2.3. If the citation includes a quotation, use double quotation marks ("...") for the main citation and single marks ('...') for the quotation inside the citation. Example: "As anthropologist Marshall Sahlins wrote, 'There is no such thing as an immaculate perception.' " (Reents-Budet, 30)
  • 3.3. Footnotes

    All notes must be included in footnotes. The footnotes should provide essential additional information or clarification, and their inclusion is acceptable only when such supplementary information proves disruptive to the flow of the narrative. The numeration of the footnotes must be consecutive, the text indented at 0.5 inches from the left margin, and typed in a smaller font (e.g.,12:10). Example: 1
    1. K'umarcaaj is the location of the former citadel-capital of the K'iche' kingdom. Here the tzijs that later were included in the manuscript today called Popol Wuj were produced and preserved. The preliminary results of the survey suggest that there is sufficient evidence indicating multiple sources for the manuscript, but all of them originated from the same ethno-cultural area and time-frame.
    Note: avoid footnotes in titles or epigraphs.

4. Other stylistic standards

The following are other common stylistic matters that require special attention when writing an article.

  • 4.1. Italics. Use italics for words in languages other than the primary language in which the manuscript is written. Use standard orthographies, including diacritical marks. Example: "… the name for Coixtlahuaca, or Yodzo Coo, is translated as 'Plain of the Serpent'..." (Caso, "Mixtec Writing and Calendar", 951)

    "El lenguaje en el que está escrito el Popol Wuj combina la poesía y la prosa..." (Sam Colop, "Introducción", 15)

    Note: names of places, cities, languages, and the like do not need italics even though they are foreign words (e.g., K'umarcaaj, Iximché, Izapa, K'iche', etc.).

  • 4.2. Abbreviations
    • 4.2.1. Avoid as much as possible the use of abbreviations. Exceptions include acronyms for titles of institutions, agencies, etc.; they must be introduced following the full name. Examples: Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico (CEH), Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH). Metric units are given in abbreviated form when they follow numbers. Examples: 235 kg, 42 lit, 440 mg, 100 km, 6 m, 15 cm.

    • 4.2.2. If necessary, the following abbreviations are accepted:
      et al., (and others)
      e.g., (exempli gratia - for example)
      i.e., (id est - that is)
      ca., (circa)
      BP, (Before Present)
      CE, (Common Era)
      BCE, (Before Common Era)
      cf. (compare against)
      vols., (volumes)
      f. (folio)
      r. (recto, front side of a leaf, only in figures or images references; e.g., Popol Wuj, f.1r.)
      v. (verso, reverse side of a leaf, only in figures or images references; e.g., Popol Wuj, f.1v.)
      Ant. (Anthology)
      Col. (Collection)
      Ed (Editorial)
      ed. (1ra ed.; 2da ed.)
      (ed.) (editor)

    • Note: 'Figure' or 'page' are always spelled out.

  • 4.3. Numbers

    Numbers must be written out in letters within the text, except measurements of distances, quantities or time. Examples: The settlers were in three groups…, the capital was at 10 km from the river, 5 m high.

  • 4.4. Hyphenation
    • 4.4.1. Compound words do not need to be hyphenated if they are considered permanent combinations. Examples: Postclassic, precolumbian, preconquest. Prefixes in common use are not hyphenated. Examples: noncultural, sociolinguistic, infrastructure, transcultural, etc.. Hyphenate descriptive terms that are combinations of words including a preposition. Examples: pre-polychrome. Hyphenate paired words serving an adjectival function. Examples: low-fire ceramic, three-dimensional.

    • 4.4.2. Do not hyphenate names of deities, indigenous characters, or calendar days/months' names. Examples: One Monkey, Seven Macaw.

    • 4.4.3. In Spanish do not hyphenate very common compound words. Example: sociocultural, posclásico.

    • 4.4.4. Do not hyphenate words at the end of the line (all words at the end of the line must be complete words).

  • 4.5. Capitalization
    • 4.5.1. Capitalize the names of geographical areas, such as Highlands, Gulf Coast, Mesoamerica, or Mayan Land. Directional, topographical, and general geographic terms are in lowercase unless they are derived from proper names of political, ethnic, or taxonomic entities. Examples: northern part of Yucatán peninsula, central Mexico.

    • 4.5.2. Capitalize names of rivers, mountains, oceans, etc., and when it is a descriptive term rather than part of the name, it is lowercased. Examples: the Usumacinta River, but the Mayan-area rivers.

    • 4.5.3. Capitalize proper names, including cultural periods such as Lower, Middle, Early, when they are part of the name, of chronological, cultural, and geological divisions. Examples: Early Classic, Late post-Classic.

    • 4.5.4. Use lowercase for taxonomic division names and restrictive modifiers. Examples: Late formative period Olmec culture, Monte Alban complex.

    • 4.5.5. Capitalize the names of archaeological classes, but place generic terms in lowercase. Examples: Palenque polychrome vessels, Mixtec jade jewelry.

    • 4.5.6. Capitalize the names of a historical periods or artistic movements. Examples: Invasion, Pre-colonial time, Middle Edge, Post-classic carving.

    • 4.5.7. Use lowercase for names of historical periods or artistic movements when they are used as adjectives. Examples: the Spanish invasion, the post-classic paintings and carvings, the conditions under colonial regime.

    • 4.5.8. In Spanish, Portuguese and French put accent on capital letters. Examples: SUMáRIO, APÊNDICES, ó, AMÉRICA, L'Étude, SACRÉ.

    • 4.5.9. In English and Portuguese capitalize the words in titles, but not prepositions and articles. Example: Maya Hieroglyphic Writing, "Prefácio dos Organizadores."

      Note: in Portuguese A and À, or E and É have different meanings.

      In Spanish only the first word of the title and last names. Example: Las historias del origen de los indios de esta Provincia de Guatemala, traducidas de la lengua Quiché al Castellano para más comodidad de los ministros del S. Evangelio.

    • 4.5.10. In French, capitalize only the first two important words. Example: Histoire des Nations civilisées du Mexique et de L'Amérique-Centrale, Durant les siècles antérieurs a Christophe Colomb.

  • 4.6. Figures, Charts, Numbering and Captions
    • 4.6.1. Illustrations are referred to as 'Figures'. Authors are responsible for supplying all images in JPG*JIF*JPEG files (*.gif, is also accepted). The size of the pictures must be between 200 and 600 dpi (pixels that can be produced within a linear one-inch [2.54 cm] space). The images cannot be compressed, and they must have a number and caption.

    • 4.6.2. Charts must include the datasheet, and they must have a number and caption.

    • 4.6.3. Use Arabic numerals and number the figures sequentially. Include a concise description or name in the caption. Place captions to each figure or chart. The caption cannot be drafted directly onto the figure.

    • 4.6.4. All drawings (including hieroglyphics and maps) must be submitted in a JPEG file. They must be clear and professionally done; cluttered illustrations are not accepted. All symbolic keys to the map or chart should appear on the figure itself. Maps must have orientation arrows. Use a visual scale when objects, plans, sections, etc., are included in the figure.

  • 4.7. Acknowledgements

    Acknowledgments must be inserted at the end of the text using the heading Acknowledgments. Academic, financial, intellectual, institutional, and technical support (e.g., special permission for consultation in archives, photographs of documents, translation, etc.) that were crucial for completion of the research and manuscript must be cited. Verbose recognitions will be edited.
Rollout Photograph K5824 & K3413 © Justin Kerr